The title for this blog turns upside-down Bruno Latour's contention that We Have Never Been Modern (1993). Latour's idea in that book is that 'modernity' was never straightforwardly enacted, or fully realised. Modernity was rather, for Latour, an ideal of 'purification', and we must distance ourselves from it if we are to comprehend it. To support the argument, Latour puts forward evidence of the intervention of 'nonhuman' agents, and human-nonhuman 'hybrids', in the supposedly purely human modern world. Global warming is his clearest example: the temperature outside intrudes upon the lives of the moderns.
Latour's powerful idea is one that troubles me as an anthropological archaeologist studying the early modern, modern and contemporary period: from the 17th to the 20th century and into the present. This is because environments entail not only human debates about ozone and sunlight, but the complex, fragmented materials that are received from the past and reworked in the present. These environments are a good deal messier than the 'actor-networks' represented by what Latour calls his 'symmetrical anthropology'. For the archaeologist, it is useful to suggest that the modern did exist, as a period - just like the Neolithic, or the Bronze Age. And like those periods it is best understood through its material remains. We cannot look past resistant materials to define the modern as simply an idea: this division between ideas and materials is simply impossible. But it did happen. In other words, the modern only ever existed insofar as it was materially enacted. We see this in its remains. And so, we have to turn Latour's argument inside-out.
We Were Modern draws together writing about the continued effects and presence of the modern, across archaeology, anthropology, architecture and contemporary art. The writing will seek to move beyond the entrenched presentism that characterises so many current discussions of modern material culture in the social sciences, and away from the false choice between pure nostalgia on one hand, or pure futurism on the other, that dominates discussions of material change.
The work collected on this blog is ‘Open Access’, published under a creative commons license which means that you are free to copy, distribute, display, and perform the work as long as you clearly attribute the work to the author/authors, that you do not use this work for any commercial gain in any form, and that you in no way alter, transform or build on the work outside of its use in normal academic scholarship without express permission of the author/authors.
For any reuse or distribution, you must make clear to others the license terms of this work. For more information see the details of the creative commons licence here: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/uk/
This means that you can:
• read and store these texts free of charge
• distribute/share them for personal use free of charge
• print sections of the texts for personal use
• read or perform parts of the texts in a context where no financial transactions take place
However, you cannot:
• gain financially from the work in anyway
• sell the work or seek monies in relation to the distribution of the work
• use the work in any commercial activity of any kind
• profit a third party indirectly via use or distribution of the work
• distribute in or through a commercial body (with the exception of academic usage within
educational institutions such as schools and universities)
• reproduce, distribute or store the images outside of their functions as illustrating this blog
• alter or build on the work outside of normal academic scholarship
The images and artwork included on this blog is not open access and fall under traditional copyright provisions. They therefore cannot be reproduced in any way without written permission of the artists and their agents. The artwork cannot be extracted from the context of this blog and re-used without breaching the artist’s copyright.
Support the Publishers
Many of the texts on this blog are electronic versions of a physical book or journal papers that can be purchased through any bookseller (including on-line stores). Please support this open access publication by requesting that your university purchase a physical printed copy of these books or subscribe to the journals, or by purchasing copies yourself. Links to all the publications in which these texts are published are provided on individual blog pages.